Other Joints of Upper Limb

Q. Classify the joints of upper limb.

A. All the joints are synovial joints except intermediate radioulnar joint which is a fibrous joint.

Name of the jointType of joint
SternoclavicularSaddle type of synovial joint
AcromioclavicularPlane type of synovial joint
Shoulder (glenohumeral)Ball and socket type of synovial joint
ElbowHinge type of synovial joint
Superior and inferior radioulnarPivot type of synovial joint
Middle radioulnarSyndesmosis type of fbrous joint
Wrist (radiocarpal )Ellipsoid type of synovial joint
Intercarpal & 2nd -5th carpometacarpalPlane type of synovial joint
1st carpometacarpalSaddle type of synovial joint
MetacrpophalangealEllipsoid type of synovial joint
InterphalangealHinge type of synovial joint

Q. Describe briefly the wrist joint under the following headings;

  • Type
  • Articular surfaces
  • Ligaments
  • Movements

A. Wrist /Radiocarpal joint:

  • Type: It is ellipsoid variety of synovial joint.
  • Articular surfaces: The articular surfaces are formed:
    • Superiorly : by the inferior surface of the lower end of the radius and the triangular articular disc ( ulna does not participate in the formation of wrist joint).
    • Inferiorly : proximal surfaces of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetral.
  • Ligaments:
    • Capsular ligament surrounds the joint.
    • On the palmar aspect –  palmar radiocarpal ligament (from radius to palmar surface of  scaphoid, lunate and triquetral) and palmar ulnocarpal ligament (from ulna to palmar surface of lunate and triquetral)
    • On the dorsal aspect– dorsal radiocarpal ligament ( from radius to dorsal surface of  scaphoid, lunate and triquetral)
    • Medially – Ulnar collateral ligament ( from styloid process of ulna to triquetral and pisiform).
    • Laterally – Radial collateral ligament ( from styloid process of radius to scaphoid bone ( it is related to radial artery).

Wrist jointligaments of wrist joint

  • Movements

MovementMuscles responsible for the movement
FlexionFlexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus
Extension Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extensors of digits ( extensor digitorum, extensor indicis and extensor digiti minimi)
AdductionFlexor carpi ulnaris
Extensor carpi ulnaris
AbductionFlexor carpi radialis
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Q. Describe briefly the 1st carpometacarpal joint under the following headings;

  • Type
  • Articular surfaces
  • Movements

A. First carpometacarpal joint 

  • Type: It is saddle variety of synovial joint.
  • Articular surfaces: are reciprocally concavo-convex.
    • Distal surface of trapezium.
    • Base of the 1st metacarpal.

first carpometacarpal joint

  • Movements

MovementMuscles responsible for the movement
FlexionFlexor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis longus
Opponens pollicis
Extension Extensor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis brevis
AdductionAdductor pollicis
AbductionAbductor pollicis longus
Abductor pollicis brevis
Opposition Opponens pollicis
Flexor pollicis brevis

Q. Write in a tabulated form the type, ligaments , movements and muscles producing them of metacapophalangeal, proximal interphalalgeal and distal interphalangeal joints.

joints of hand

A.                                                                            

JointTypeLigamentsMovementsMuscles producing movements
1st Metacarpophalangeal jointEllipsoid type of synovial jointCapular ligament, Palmar fibrocartilaginous ligament, Medial and Lateral collateral ligamentsFlexionFlexor pollicis longus and Flexor pollicis brevis
ExtensionExtensor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis
AdductionAdductor pollicis
AbductionAbductor pollicis brevis
2nd-5th Metacarpophalangeal jointsEllipsoid type of synovial jointCapular ligament, Palmar fibrocartilaginous ligament, Medial and Lateral collateral ligamentsFlexionLumbricals and interossei
ExtensionExtensor digitoum ( extensor indicis and extensor digitimi also for index and little fingers respectively)
AdductionPalmar interossei
AbductionDorsal interossei
1st Proximal interphalangeal jointHinge type of synovial jointCapular ligament, Palmar fibrocartilaginous ligament, Medial and Lateral collateral ligamentsFlexionFlexor pollicis lonus
ExtensionExtensor pollicis longus
2nd -5th Proximal interphalangeal jointsHinge type of synovial jointCapular ligament, Palmar fibrocartilaginous ligament, Medial and Lateral collateral ligamentsFlexionFlexor digitorum superficialis
ExtensionLumbricals and interossei
Distal interphalangeal joints of fingersHinge type of synovial jointCapular ligament, Palmar fibrocartilaginous ligament, Medial and Lateral collateral ligamentsFlexionFlexor digitorum profundus
ExtensionLumbricals and interossei

 

 

 

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