Head and Neck – Important Questions

A. Enumerate:

  1. Layers of scalp
  2. Sensory nerves supplying scalp.
  3. Arteries supplying scalp.
  4. Components of lacrimal apparatus.
  5. Arteries supplying face.
  6. Structures pierces by parotid duct.
  7. Structures passing through the parotid gland.
  8. Branches of facial artery.
  9. Cutaneous nerve of side of neck and their root values.
  10. Contents of posterior triangle.
  11. Contents of carotid triangle.
  12. Infrahyoid muscles and their nerve supply.
  13. Suprahyoid muscles and their nerve supply
  14. Muscles supplied by ansa cervicalis.
  15. Structures forming superficial relations of hyoglossus muscle.
  16. Structures passing deep to the posterior border of hyoglossus.
  17. Branches of external carotid artery.
  18. Tributaries of internal gular vein.
  19. Medial relations of thyroid gland.
  20. Branches of 1st part of maxillary artery
  21. Branches of 2nd part of maxillary artery
  22. Branches of 3rd part of maxillary artery.
  23. Branches of anterior division of mandibular nerve and structures supplied by them.
  24. Muscles of mastication and their action.
  25. Branches of posterior division of mandibular nerve and structures supplied by them.
  26. Components of Waldeyer’s ring.
  27. Muscles of tongue and their nerve supply.
  28. Muscles of soft palate and their nerve supply.
  29.  Muscles of pharynx and their nerve supply.
  30. Structures passing above the superior constrictor of pharynx.
  31. Structures passing between superior and middle constrictor of pharynx.
  32. Structures passing between middle and inferior constrictor of pharynx.
  33. Structures passing below the inferior constrictor of pharynx.
  34. Cartilages of larynx.
  35. Muscles of larynx and their action.
  36. Branches of maxillary nerve.
  37. Structures opening in superior meatus of nose.
  38. Structures opening in middle meatus of nose.
  39. Structures opening in inferior meatus of nose.
  40. Arteries supplying nasal septum.
  41. Nerves supplying nasal septum.
  42. Nerves supplying lateral wall of nose.
  43. Paired and unpaired dural venous sinuses.
  44. Structures passing through the  lateral wall of cavernous sinus.
  45. Extra-ocular muscles and their nerve supply.
  46. Contents of middle ear cavity/tympanic cavity.
  47. Structures attached to the styloid process.
  48. Muscles attached to the styloid process and their nerve supply.
  49. Structures passing through superior orbital fissure.

B. Draw labelled diagram to show:

  1. Layers of scalp
  2. Sensory innervation of face.
  3. Components of lacrimal apparatus.
  4. Relations of parotid gland.
  5. Structures emerging from the periphery of parotid gland.
  6. Horizontal disposition of deep cervical fascia.
  7. Carotid sheath
  8. Ansa cervicalis.
  9. Superficial relations of hyoglossus muscle.
  10. Mandibular nerve and its branches.
  11. Sensory innervation of tongue.
  12. Relations of palatine tonsil.
  13. Arterial supply of palatine tonsil.
  14. Arterial supply of nasal septum
  15. Lateral wall of nose with meatuses and structures opening into them.
  16. Tympanic membrane
  17. Relations and contents of tympanic/middle ear cavity.

C. Write short notes on:

  1. Lacrimal apparatus.
  2. Nerve supply of parotid gland.
  3. Ansa cervicalis.
  4. Carotid sheath.
  5. Blood supply of thyroid gland.
  6. Otic ganglion.
  7. Submandibular ganglion.
  8. Submandibular gland.
  9. Pterygopalatine ganglion.
  10. Temporomandibular joint.
  11. Muscles of mastication.
  12. Palatine tonsil.
  13. Pyriform fossa
  14. Paranasal air sinuses.
  15. Extraocular muscles.
  16. Cavernous venous sinus.
  17. Tympanic membrane.
  18. Middle ear cavity.
  19. Glossopharyngeal nerve.
  20. Facial nerve
  21. Mandibular nerve
  22. Bell’s palsy
  23. Dangerous area of face.

D. Long questions:

  1. Describe parotid gland under the following headings:
    1. Location and parts
    2. Relations
    3. Nerve supply
    4. Applied anatomy
  1. Describe thyroid gland under the following headings:
    1. Location and parts.
    2. Relations
    3. Blood supply
    4. Applied anatomy
  1. Describe tongue under the following headings:
    1. Parts
    2. Muscles
    3. Nerve supply correlated with development
    4. Lymphatic drainage
    5. Applied anatomy
  1. Describe temporomandibular joint under the following headings:
    1. Type
    2. Capsule and ligaments
    3. Movements and muscles responsible for causing movements
    4. Applied anatomy
  1. Describe cavernous sinus under the following headings:
    1. Location
    2. Relations
    3. Tributaries and connections
    4. Applied anatomy
  1. Describe palatine tonsil under the following headings:
    1. Location and external features
    2. Relations
    3. Arterial supply
    4. Applied anatomy

E. Give anatomical basis of:

  1. Dangerous layer of scalp
  2. A blow on head lead to ‘Black eye’.
  3. Wounds of scalp bleed profusely
  4. Dangerous area of face.
  5. Bell’s palsy.
  6. Inflammatory swelling of parotid gland are very painful.
  7. Parotid abscess is drained by horizontal incision.
  8. Frey’s syndrome.
  9. Formation of calculus is more common in the submandibular gland than parotid gland.
  10. For excision of submandibular gland, the incision in the skin should be given approx. 1 inch below the angle of mandible.
  11. Injury to external jugular vein about 1 inch above the clavicle can be fatal.
  12. Thyroid gland moves up and down during swallowing.
  13. During thyroidectomy, thyroid gland is removed along with the true capsule.
  14. During thyroidectomy, superior throid artery is ligated close to the upper pole of thyroid gland, whereas the inferior thyroid artery is ligated away from the inferior pole.
  15. Genioglossus is known as safety muscle of the tongue.
  16. Bleeding during tonsillectomy.
  17. Quinsy
  18. There may be loss of taste sensation following tonsillectomy.
  19. Removal of foreign bodies lodged in pyriform fossa may lead to loss of protective ‘ cough reflex’.
  20. Killian dehiscence and pharyngeal diverticulum.
  21. Posterior cricoarytenoid is known as safety muscle of the larynx.
  22. Patient having cancer of tongue often complains of earache.
  23. Maxillary sinus is the most commonly infected paranasal air sinus.
  24. Postero-inferior quadrant of tympanic membrane is the preferred sit of incision for draining pus from the middle ear.
  25. Optic disc is referred to as ‘blindspot’.
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